Time-frequency analysis of differences between coordinates of three permanent GNSS stations in Krakow
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Department of Environmental Engineering and Geodesy, Faculty of Production Engineering, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 13 Akademicka Str, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
Department of Geodesy, Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Land Surveying, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Al. Mickiewicza 24/28, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
Submission date: 2023-07-27
Acceptance date: 2023-11-14
Publication date: 2023-11-30
Corresponding author
Wiesław Kosek   

Department of Environmental Engineering and Geodesy, Faculty of Production Engineering, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 13 Akademicka Str, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics 2023;116:61-68
  • Three nearby GNSS stations in Kraków are similarly affected by local atmospheric effects or satellite constellation changes.
  • Differences between station coordinates reveal systematic variations due to local effects, detectable by time-frequency analysis.
  • Local effects could be affected by the variability of the multipath environment.
This paper applies time-frequency analysis to a 3-day time series with a sampling interval of 1 second of the changes in E, N and H coordinates of three permanent GNSS stations: WRON, KR10, and KRUR in Krakow, as well as differences between them. Time-frequency analysis was conducted using a Fourier transform band-pass filter, which separates time series into frequency components. By analyzing the differences between these coordinates, it was observed that the WRON station shows a systematic error in the form of a regular wideband oscillation with a period of 75 minutes, whose amplitude varies from approximately 1 to 3 mm with a period of about 1 day. In the horizontal plane, this oscillation takes the shape of a flattened ellipse with a semi-major axis oriented in the northwest direction. The most probable cause of this regular oscillation is the day-to-day variability of the multipath signal environment.
The paper was sponsored by the statutory funds of the Faculty Production Engineering of the University of Life Sciences in Lublin and of the Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Land Surveying of the University of Agriculture in Krakow.
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