Monitoring of Icelandic plate movement with GNSS method and GPS signal jamming effects in Iceland
More details
Hide details
Department of Geomatic Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34220 Esenler, Istanbul, Türkiye
Department of Geomatics Engineering, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Canakkale, Türkiye
Submission date: 2023-01-30
Acceptance date: 2023-10-06
Publication date: 2023-11-06
Corresponding author
Atınç Pırtı   

Department of Geomatic Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34220 Esenler, Istanbul, Türkiye
Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics 2023;116:15-22
Jamming is electromagnetic radiation or reflection that impairs the function of electronic instruments and equipment or communication tools. Intentionally disrupting or interfering with GPS signals, which are used for positioning, navigation, and timing, known as "GPS jamming", is accomplished using a radio frequency emitting device. On January 8, 2022 (the day of a NATO exercise), it was investigated how GPS signal jamming affected the position accuracy at three IGS points in Iceland. The obtained coordinate differences between kinematic processing and static processing reached values of about 0.5–10 meters for the MAYV, and HOFN stations in this study. In addition to GPS signal jamming effect in Iceland, horizontal and vertical velocity fields of the three IGS stations in Iceland covering a twenty-two year period (2000–2022) in this study. According to the obtained results, a motion of about 2cm–2.5cm per year (horizontal) and 0.1cm–2.1cm per year (vertical) was computed at the three IGS stations (HOFN, REYK, and MAYV) located in Iceland.
Aerospace Security (2022). Arctic Circle GPS Jamming. Aerospace Security. Last accessed January 2023.
Aghadadashfam, M., Mosavi, M., and Rezaei, M. (2020). A new post-correlation anti-jamming technique for GPS receivers. GPS solutions, 24:1–16, doi:10.1007/s10291-020-01004-y.
Árnadóttir, T., Geirsson, H., and Jiang, W. (2008). Crustal deformation in Iceland: Plate spreading and earthquake deformation. Jökull, 58:59–74.
Bergerat, F., Homberg, C., Angelier, J., and Bellou, M. (2011). Surface traces of the Minnivellir, Réttarnes and Tjörvafit seismic faults in the South Iceland Seismic Zone: Segmentation, lengths and magnitude of related earthquakes. Tectonophysics, 498(1-4):11–26, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2010.11.014.
Björnsson, S. and Einarsson, P. (1974). Seismicity of Iceland. In Geodynamics of Iceland and the North Atlantic Area: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, Reykjavik, Iceland, 1–7 July, 1974, pages 225–239. Springer, doi:10.1007/978-94-010-2271-2_16.
Borio, D., Dovis, F., Kuusniemi, H., and Presti, L. L. (2016). Impact and detection of GNSS jammers on consumer grade satellite navigation receivers. Proceedings of the IEEE, 104(6):1233–1245, doi:10.1109/JPROC.2016.2543266.
Borio, D. and Gioia, C. (2021). Interference mitigation: impact on GNSS timing. GPS Solutions, 25(37), doi:10.1007/s10291-020-01075-x.
CRFS (2019). How to deal with GPS jamming and spoofing. CRFS. Last accessed January 2023.
Dunnigan, J. (2013). A solution for the jammer threat. Technical report.
Einarsson, P. (1991). Earthquakes and present-day tectonism in Iceland. Tectonophysics, 189(1-4):261–279, doi:10.1016/0040-1951(91)90501-I.
Faria, L. d. A., Silvestre, C. A. d. M., and Correia, M. A. F. (2016). GPS-dependent systems: Vulnerabilities to electromagnetic attacks. Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management, 8:423–430, doi:10.5028/jatm.v8i4.632.
Fu, Z., Hornbostel, A., Hammesfahr, J., and Konovaltsev, A. (2003). Suppression of multipath and jamming signals by digital beam-forming for GPS/Galileo applications. GPS solutions, 6:257–264.
Glomsvoll, O. and Bonenberg, L. K. (2017). GNSS jamming resilience for close to shore navigation in the Northern Sea. The Journal of Navigation, 70(1):33–48, doi:10.1017/S0373463316000473.
Gorski, A. (2018). When GPS jammers interfere with military operations. Technical report.
Goward, D. (2017). Mass GPS spoofing attack in black sea? The Maritime Executive, 11.
Gudmundsson, A. (2007). Infrastructure and evolution of ocean-ridge discontinuities in Iceland. Journal of Geodynamics, 43(1):6–29, doi:10.1016/j.jog.2006.09.002.
Halldorsson, P., Bjornsson, S., Brandsdottir, B., Solnes, J., Stefansson, R., and Bessason, B. (2013). Earthquakes in Iceland. In Solnes, J. and Bessason, B., editors, Natural hazard in Iceland, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. University of Iceland Press and Iceland Catastrophe Insurance, Iceland.
Hu, Y., Bian, S., Cao, K., and Ji, B. (2018). GNSS spoofing detection based on new signal quality assessment model. GPS Solutions, 22:28, doi:10.1007/s10291-017-0693-7.
Johannesson, H., Jakobsson, S. P., and Saedmundsson, K. (2018). Geological map of Iceland. Technical report. sheet 6, south Iceland, 3rd ed., Icelandic Mus. Nat. Hist. and Icelandic Geod. Surv., Reykjavik.
Marcus, M. J. (2014). Growing consumer interest in jamming: spectrum policy implications [Spectrum Policy and Regulatory Issues]. IEEE wireless communications, 21(1):4–4, doi:10.1109/MWC.2014.6757888.
Martini, P. (2016). China jamming US Forces’ GPS. Technical report.
Mizokami, K. (2016). North Korea is jamming GPS signals. Popular Mechanics, 5.
Mosavi, M. R., Rezaei, M. J., Pashaian, M., and Moghaddasi, M. S. (2017). A fast and accurate anti-jamming system based on wavelet packet transform for GPS receivers. GPS solutions, 21:415–426, doi:10.1007/s10291-016-0535-z.
Moussa, M. M., Osman, A., Tamazin, M., Korenberg, M., Noureldin, A., and Group, N. R. (2017). Enhanced GPS narrowband jamming detection using high-resolution spectral estimation. GPS solutions, 21:475–485, doi:10.1007/s10291-016-0528-y.
Nilsen, T. (2019). GPS jamming jeopardizes public safety in Norway’s northernmost region. Technical report.
Olafsson, S. (2013). Attenuation of earthquake waves. In Solnes, J. and Bessason, B., editors, Natural hazard in Iceland, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. University of Iceland Press and Iceland Catastrophe Insurance, Iceland.
Pinker, A. and Smith, C. (1999). Vulnerability of the GPS signal to jamming. GPS Solutions, 3:19–27, doi:10.1007/PL00012788.
Pirti, A. and Yucel, M. A. (2022). The impact of Russian on GPS signal jamming in the Scandinavian Region. Technical report.
Sigbjörnsson, R. and Ólafsson, S. (2004). On the south Iceland earthquakes in june 2000: Strong-motion effects and damage. Bollettino di Geofisica teorica ed applicata, 45(3):131–152.
Sigbjörnsson, R., Ólafsson, S., and Snæbjörnsson, J. T. (2007). Macroseismic effects related to strong ground motion: a study of the south Iceland earthquakes in june 2000. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 5:591–608, doi:10.1007/s10518-007-9045-2.
Sigmundsson, F., Einarsson, P., Bilham, R., and Sturkell, E. (1995). Rift-transform kinematics in south Iceland: Deformation from Global Positioning System measurements, 1986 to 1992. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 100(B4):6235–6248, doi:10.1029/95JB00155.
Staalesen, A. (2018). Norway requests Russia to halt GPS jamming in borderland. Technical report.
Stopienski, P. (2020). Opportunity to elimination jamming by the adequate formation of the antenna beam of the GNSS receiver. Master’s thesis, PNA, Gdynia.
Trevithick, J. (2018). American general says ‘adversaries’ are jamming AC-130 gunships in Syria. The Drive, 25.
Vogfjoro, K., Sigbjornsson, R., Snaebjornsson, T. T., Halldorsson, B., Solnes, J., and Stefansson, R. (2013). The south Iceland earthquakes 2000 and 2008. In Solnes, J. and Bessason, B., editors, Natural hazard in Iceland, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. University of Iceland Press and Iceland Catastrophe Insurance, Iceland.
Wang, C.-Z., Kong, L.-W., Jiang, J., and Lai, Y.-C. (2021). Machine learning-based approach to GPS antijamming. GPS Solutions, 25(3):115, doi:10.1007/s10291-021-01154-7.
Westbrook, T. (2019). The Global Positioning System and military jamming: geographies of electronic warfare. Journal of Strategic Security, 12(2):1–16, doi:10.5038/1944-0472.12.2.1720.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top